Red wine and white wine has many differences not only in color. For instance, you can taste either of them to test. Red wine tastes much heavier and more complex than white wine. In common, red types are not sweet like white type.
White wines are made from white grapes by separating the skin of the grapes from the juice, after which yeast is added for fermentation purposes right until the juice turns into white wine. Then the wine is stored for aging in stainless steel or oak wood containers.
On the other hand, when you make red wine, the process is a bit different. It is made of red or black grapes and here the grapes are crushed first and then they are added along with their skin to a fermentation process that takes about 1-2 weeks to end. Towards the end, the skin raises to the surface and forms a top layer which is usually mixed back into the must (the fermenting juice). When the fermentation period is over, the wine is then pressed into a press wine to be first clarified and then stored away in oak containers for a couple of months before it can be transferred into bottles. When you store the red one into oak containers, you transfer to the wine extra tannin that the oak barrels contains, which gives that extra flavor to the red wine that you can't find in any white wine.
This is actually one of the main differences between the two wine types, the amount of tannin they usually contain. Of course the red one has more of it since the tannin is coming from the skin of the grapes, and the white wine is made without the actual skin.
Another main difference is the fact that you are likely to find more flavours between red wines compared to white ones.